Halogen bulb - These are traditional bulbs that give out a yellowish/orange look and are very cheap to replace. New cars still come with halogen bulbs as standard but more brighter halogen bulbs are available which can increase visibility. Please check with your vehicle manufacturer.
H.I.D or High-intensity discharge lamps also known as xenon have been available for over 10 years and must be installed. Usually takes 10 seconds to warm up or fully brighten. HID.s are harder to install than LEDs but you have various options from colours and power to choose from. Just as its conterpart be sure to get the road legal ones and always use a profesional to install the xenon conversion kits. You will need to correct the beam pattern after installation.
Led Bulbs or Light Emitting Diodes - These are newer than the HIDs. Some new cars have LED bulbs installed as standard but for older model of cars you may require a installation process or a upgrade. LEDs can last as much as 20x more than the halogen bulbs. LEDs consume much less power and are easier to install "plug and play" than HIDs. Giving a clear white light instantly. LED conversion can flicker if not installed correctly. Some advertise as 1000k lumens which Skippy differs on but LEDs are extremely bright and can blind other road users. Be sure to check the ones you are getting are road legal.
Laser beam headlights are a clear step forward in innovation in light output. Being 4x more brighter than LEDs and giving a viewing distance as much as 1500 feet (457.2 metres. Currently only a few cars have the laser high beam system notably the BMW i8 and the Audi R8 and the new BMW 7 series. With further car manufacturers looking into this for the future of their cars.